For radiocarbon dating
These changes were brought about by several factors including, but not limited to, fluctuations in the earth’s geomagnetic moment, fossil fuel burning, and nuclear testing.
The most popular and often used method for calibration is by dendrochronology.
Carbon consists of 99% carbon-12, 1% carbon-13, and about one part per million carbon-14.
The carbon-14 method was developed by the American physicist Willard F. It has proved to be a versatile technique of dating fossils and archaeological specimens from 500 to 50,000 years old.
The method is widely used by Pleistocene geologists, anthropologists, archaeologists, and investigators in related fields.
Radiocarbon measurements are based on the assumption that atmospheric carbon-14 concentration has remained constant as it was in 1950 and that the half-life of carbon-14 is 5568 years.
Calibration of radiocarbon results is needed to account for changes in the atmospheric concentration of carbon-14 over time.
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The science of dendrochronology is based on the phenomenon that trees usually grow by the addition of rings, hence the name tree-ring dating.